A society that shirks from tackling issues related to the significant majority in its midst can only pretend to be democratic: address Oromo Issues to make Ethiopia a true Democracy

By  Mulata Gudata
Olf-flagNo politics is ever born new as the politics of tomorrow is the projection of what we have on our hands today. It is only that as a society the wisdom we deploy in handling our political moves makes the outcome of the projection to take a desirable course or a catastrophic one.
The civil right issues and the quest for social reform that we grapple with today after it has exploded out of control have started during the time of Emperor Haile Silasse. The outcome could have been sweeter and the process smoother had they been wisely dealt with at the time. Unfortunately the ruling class had remained at best insensitive at worst tried to manipulate it contrary to the interest of the majority due to the naïve belief that power was their gift from God and it was theirs to keep.
Then heavy rain started to beat us when the rule of the monarchy had to come to an end unceremoniously and the whole process hijacked by the military dictatorship with a socialist ideology that presupposes one party rule at a time when Ethiopian politics was bustling with a number of divergent views and different political groupings that could have been better accommodated under a multiparty political system, hence the blood shade.
The Eritrean question has always been there for years before the emperor was deposed and so did the Oromo issues. Had an attempt been made to answer them wisely and timely we would not have been where we stand today. Yet the most unfortunate is even today, almost two decades later which is a little short of my age, we seem to have drawn little lesson from our failures of all these years as our country titters on the verge of disintegration. As our national bag of regret is overflowing for the missed opportunities, I strongly believe it is not too late for us to do the right thing that helps to save our country.

Democracy being a political system that presupposes the rule of the majority by way of a free and fair democratic process, a society that shirks from tackling issues related to the significant majority in its midst can only pretend to be democratic in order to keep in check the unsolved issues. Though the unrelenting efforts  made by our elites in trying to inform and enlighten our people politically is commendable, I have so far seen one paper that has boldly aimed at the heart of the fundamental problem that holds back our country from becoming a real democracy.
It was a paper on Oromo issues which I came across in Ethiomedia web page  at this link http://www.ethiomedia.com/2013report/4616.html  (which to my dismay no other opposition website hosts have cared to post on their site including the Oromo affiliated ones as they would often happily do the most divisive and extreme oriented papers, though I am not sure whether the writer had ignored to give it to them or they decided to ignore it after receiving).
Many people believe that by resolving Oromo issues our country can claim to have settled by far more than half of our socio-political problems; however the challenge has remained on how to go about it. In order for us to become a truly democratic nation with no bones in the closet in the form of jails that are always full to the brim with political detainees, we should not shy away from any avenue that will take us to the most desired place – a truly democratic nation that is at peace with itself.
And that can only happen when, given what has been on the ground over the last two decades, we become ready and willing to accept anything that can help our people to march towards the platform of reconciliation as long as all Ethiopians as citizens of one nation can work and live anywhere in the country irrespective of their tribe or faith group. Whatever is ‘given to or rather recognised for’ a part of our society in the process of social reform is never taken away for it will be there for all of us in which we will become a rainbow nation that recognises and cherishes its diversity. It is with this frame of mind that we should approach issues of social and political reform with generous attitude and bold mentality far from begrudging and mean way of thinking since it would have an unprecedented effect in terms of healing and reconciliation to help our self put the ghost of tribalism to rest for ever.
It is also on this premises that I consider venturing into a territory where the devil dare not step as I am ready and willing to accept the condemnation it inevitably attracts to me from all sides. By refusing to ‘swallow the medicine that cures us,’ in political sense, we often prove to be Ethiopians for it has not been in our political tradition to swallow the bitter pill for our own good.
So here I go, as an individual and a fellow citizen if I were to be asked I would recommend the following as the best or nearly the best starting point when it comes to addressing Oromo issues:
1 – One could not help sympathizing with the argument that our three colour flag has flown for generations defended by the sacrifices made by our ancestors from all communities making no segment of our society able to lay claim of exclusive ownership to it. This is a true and fair argument which sounds highly convincing, yet with the proliferation of different flags for different communities came the clamour from each group to stick to its own and this very fact seems to have invigorated the necessity of reforming our flag with the view of making it attractive to all citizens equally as a national symbol which each and every citizen will be willing and ready to defend and die for.
In respect to this, given the size of the Oromo population and the land mass it represents, there should be a clear mark in our national symbol dedicated to Oromo identity. Put in also some stars or other things appropriate to recognise other minority tribes in the country. We should be able to acknowledge that a lot needs to be done to shore up the sense of pride in our bigger national identity in order to counter the undesirable trend of sense of patriotism as it stands eroded and dealt a severe blow when it comes to the younger generation as allegiance seems to have shifted to one’s own tribal enclave with its respective flag rather than the larger national identity and pride.  If it takes reforming our flag for the sake of peace and reconciliation so be it and we should be more than willing to redesign our symbol in order to ‘save our soul.’
2- Accept Oromo language as the second national language with the preferred alphabet or Qubee as it has already been in use over the last two decades. We should be able to appreciate the fact that modern day information technologies such as computer keyboard, internet communication, mobile phone texting and other social media outlets such as face book make the use of Qubee inevitable even without legal enforcement.
And this fact renders irrelevant the argument against the use of Qubee as it seems to be the case with some segments of our elites. Understandably those who oppose the use of Qubee have their arguments based on maintaining our tradition of using Sava Alphabet as a symbol of our independence which is another fair opinion with credit to it but as things stand today this argument comes too late to resonate with the Oromo mass that has been writing with the alphabet for such a long time.  All Ethiopians should begin to consider Qubee as a tool of convenience chosen by native speakers of the Oromo language rather than as a symbol of reversal of history for we still remain with Sava Alphabet using it to write Amharic and Tigrigna as ever.
Should there be any compelling reason beyond my imagination that calls for the use of Qubee to be abandoned, the right avenue towards that should be by asking the Oromo mass through a referendum as a way of genuine democratic process and respect for the people and their opinion.
Talking of language, we should work hard to avoid the risk of appearing to ignore the minority communities in the country as we understandably are focusing on the larger ones. For this reason, I believe, in the future there need be at least a government funded independent TV station dedicated to promoting the language and culture of the nearly 83 tribes in the country in which case each is assigned a designated air time of a minimum of 30 minutes to 1 hour every week or every three or four days in a week with the view of preserving it all as a national treasure of cultures that should not be left to die with time as was the case with the extinct Gaffat language in our history.
3- Come up with a formula of resource sharing with the express aim of some benefits for areas and regions from where resources are generated as national resources. The people from the areas where resources originate cannot be expected to be happy bystanders who enjoy the role of overseeing resources leaving their area destined to develop other parts of the country.
There need be a mechanism by which a percentage of it is spent on the development of the region in terms of health facilities, infrastructure and schools as a gesture of good will.  We cannot lose sight of the globally recognised fact that the exploitation of resources comes with side effects such as environmental degradation, pollutions of air and water sources where by the people in the immediate locality are the direct victims of such undesirable effects making the consideration of compensating the locals fair and appropriate.
4- With this in place, restructure the country on a federal arrangement with provinces as a federal basis as we knew them before the 1991 charter which framed the country with an express purpose of free ride for TPLF without taking into consideration the negative impacts it would have on the country and all Ethiopian communities.
To cite an example Oromiya has been designed as Oromo region in spite of the fundamental flaws in it from the very inception since there are Oromos in all corners of the country that are left out of the arrangement not to mention the non-Oromo communities that had to fall within the region. This being the fact Oromiya cannot qualify as an Oromo region to sit comfortably in the Ethiopian union. Oromo elites should be ready to compromise on this particular issue as it stands on the way of negotiated solutions aimed at resolving our differences amicably since Oromiya finds its name in the history of the country only under the highly biased tyrannical rule of TPLF/EPRDF, simply recognised to help and ensure the divide and destroy policy in which Oromos are the most losers.
Considering the strong emotional association that has evolved in relation to Oromiya as the name of Oromo region among the Oromo mass over the last two decades one could also argue in favour of retaining the name in which case arrangements could be considered to create federal entities on the basis of East, West, South and central Oromiya as part of the federal arrangement.
Yet at the end of the day we formulate policies based on realistic need and practical applicability far from pandering to emotional appeasement. We should be able to accept the fact that the solution to our social woes lies in working together to put in place a dynamic system that accommodates all of us in which we will be able to count on each other as allies in the fight against poverty not as enemies who cannot see anything beyond widening the gap of them-and-us from which no one stands to benefit.
5- Put some arrangements in place to reflect the representation of other minorities in the government in terms of parliamentary and regional representations such that the minorities will be able to have their say when the majorities have their way in one-person one-vote democratic system whereby political parties should be required by law to be multinational without tribal affiliation.
With these provisions in place Oromos should run and compete for political power on equal footings with all other communities in the country as citizens of one state in which any person has the right to live and make a living anywhere in the country without limitations what so ever.
Please enjoy this music!
The writer can be reached at:  [email protected]


  1. The idea of dividing the present Oromiya is totally unacceptable. I think the Oromians (including me) prefer to die than than watching the present Oromiya taken back to the previous form(division). It’s better losing the unity if Oromiya is not allowed to stay as a single indivisible state with Oromians as a single indivisible nation entity.

  2. What can I say, I was waiting for such people with a balanced and realistic opinion. Please extremists of old school mentality and ethnocenerts don’t come here to bash this article with your usual name calling. I don’t agree in some of the points in the article but I’m ready to compromise. We can’t have everything in our way. I expect respectful and matured discussion over this topic. I can see light now at the end of the tunnel.
    thank u Mulata

  3. Well,all in all it is a good idea. But, if the interest is to promote the Oromo language, then I think that can be easier using Amaharic alphabet. The Qubee is a modified form of Latin and 70% of the non-oromo community in Ethiopia see it as something foreign. Personally, I would like my kids to learn Oromgna, but only if there is some love form the Oromos and if the Oromos feel that the language belongs to all of us, and if we have “a say” on how the langauge is promoted within and outside Ethiopia (including the alphabet).
    My worry is, I don’t think there will be a problem with the Amaras to learn Oromgna. The Tigres can also go and join Eritrea. How can we tell the other nationalists to learn two national languages (Amharic and Oromgna). That will be on top of English and at the end of the day, these gusy will have to speak four or five langauges. Well, language is an assest and it is possible to learn many like me (I can speak six). But, promoting four or more will need a large investment. Can we afford that? With love, it is possible.
    On the flag, the three color national flag had never been a property of Ras Ali, Menelik or Yohannes. It was there for years and it should stay there for generations. Regional states can create their own flag based on this flag, say Oromos can put their tree on it, the Somalis can put the Camel, the Afars their Sword, the Tigres their Obelisk, the Amaras their Rockhawn Churches or Abay Fall, etc.

    • thanks Ayele for your polite oppenions. I agree with some of the points raised by this Article’s writer.I Oromos are very accomodative and don’t want to force others to ressmbel Oromo by everything.we Oromos only need acceptance of our identity by especially the Amahars.The Amhars want to paint evrybody with same paint so that all ethiopain citizens become homoginous(speaking one language, dressing one type of cloths, attending one religion) etc. I wonder why Amharas put them selves as the “choosen people for Ethiopia” .u know I am hating them because they don’t respcet others.otherwise we oromos are very polite and we don’t want to force evrybody to learn Oromo language, but we need to have proportional power and able to speak for our own people. Federalism is good for all of us, but the Power balance shoud be there. Not onlt tigire, or Amahara rule the Nation, we all should share. we all should contribute.we all should respect each other, For this we need a model leader/s.

  4. As far as Oromos are concerned NO negotiation in regards to #2 and #4. Directly or indirectly, the Oromo people have decided about Qubee and Democratic Republic of Oromiyaa bay back in 1991. Remember about the 1991 Oromo Scholars meeting about the adoption of Qubee (Latin alphabet) for Oromo language. It was unianimous decision. CASE CLOSED! The majority of Oromos accept and support the current federal structure but stuggling for the implementation without any limitation or interferance. Don’t forget that Oromia has always lived in our heart even long time before it was legally put on the map in 1991. Soon or later Oromia will be a reality.
    In regards to the language, in order to be fair for all nations and nationalities ENGLISH has to be a national language. BTW: there is no such 1st, 2nd, 3rd….national language. If it is a national language, then it has to be a national language equally.

  5. It is an opinion. It is a good start, but I sense something in it. It alludes to the fact that there is some imaginary force out there who should give permission as to the status of Afan oromo and Oromia. The oromos do not see the existence of any force above them who can give or take away the right to use Afan oromo in Oromia. I can understand the flag issue since it also involves others. Other wise I do not intend to give the sense of power to others when there is none on Oromos.


  7. The article is total bullshit. It simply reflects Oromos ow mentality. How come Oromgna be a national language? Which dialect of Oromgna? Is Oromgna a language which can stand by itself? Is it possible for Oromos to leave Ethiopia and go back to Madagascar? As far as I understand, an Ethiopia without Amara and Amharic language will never come to exist. Oromgna and oromos can go to hell.

    • you are Komata Fekadu Moroeda. Oromos are not from Madgaskar.it is the false history that your grandfathers wrote. you better search for a better genuiune history. Bullsheet yourself.

  8. I think every one entitled to say but when we come to the reality wether we like or not we are one country one people if you amara or oromo keep for yourself no body can come against you .we are all Ethiopian if you don’t believe this you are entitled as your own comment to pack and go to live to other countries . Ethiopia is a country before Amharigna ,oromigna and Tigrigna we can argue each other and compromise each other for each others values but we can’t compromise with our country .

  9. I think it is a good start to initiate new and fresh ideas that might free us from the current impasse and perpetual gridlock. We all have a responsibility to think outside of the box. Mr. Gudata is doing his part and the rest of us need to follow suit. It does not mean that we agree with his propositions but let us all be open, respectful and accommodating to his suggestions. Remember that we have already spent half a century fighting against each other as if we have no brain to find political solution. our children and grandchildren must at least have a better chance to breath a peaceful air than the one we did so far.Thank you Gudata.

  10. Fekadu Moreda and daa know you are same person pretending Oromo and Amhara. Typical Tesaye G/Ab style or weyane style to drag such constructive posetive discussion to chaos. Please Amhara and Oromos beware of such idiots

  11. Hunde and Fekadu Morreda
    Are both TPLF who fear being sent to hell when this happens, pure and simople.
    Ethiopians watch out, we can no longer be deceived by wolves in sheep skin.

  12. TPLF tugs in here such as daa, Unde and other birds of the vsame feather stand to benefit from the division that exists among us that is why we have to work hard to reach to each other by elminating the ctack.
    (Please Zehabesha accept my new name wqith this email address.)

  13. oromo should use the ge’ez alphabet which is african and a world heritage, like that of chinese, arabic, hindi etc . if they are not proud of their african heritage, how can they promote their language.
    It is the same as saying I would rather be a slave to europeans than choosing to use alphabet which is african. the oromo ‘elite’ see african as inferior, which by implication mean that they suffer from inferiority complex. they are maintaining a slave mentality by preferring to use latin.
    or why not they create their own alphabets and make us proud as africans.

  14. This is an opinion and everybody is entitled to his/her opinion. It is ok to express our opinion and discuss it or promote it. But we have to leave the final decision to the people concerned. It is the concerned people that have to decide their fate and no one else can or should decide what is best for them moving forward. Whatever the case, it is good to lay out there the ground rule for peaceful coexistence. The fundamental ground rule is the rights of the people are non-negotiable. You can negotiate on policies but not on the fundamental rights of the people. The fundamental rights of the Oromo people to use and promote their own God given language the way they think is in their best interest are non-negotiable. Oromos are not asking any non-Oromo, none whatsoever, to learn and use Afaan Oromoo nor do they espouse the slightest intention to impose it on the others. We are talking here about the Oromo people using their own language, namely, Afaan Oromoo. Similarly, the other fundamental ground rule is the territorial integrity of Oromiyaa and the unity of the Oromo people are non-negotiable. This is true whether the Oromo people choose to live in a fundamental arrangement with the rest of the peoples in the Ethiopian empire or form their own independent Democratic Republic of Oromiyaa. If others do not want to respect these fundamental non-negotiable rights of the Oromo people, it is their choice. We Oromos respect their right to disagree and move on as one of the ground rules for peaceful coexistence is agreeing to disagree. Once those and other fundamental ground rules are recognized and respected, the sky is the limit to negotiate on anything as long as it promotes the peaceful and prosperous coexistence of peoples in that region of Africa and beyond. In a nutshell, it the Oromo people and only the Oromo people that decide their own fate and no body else can tamper with it. Similarly, it is the Amhara people and only the Amhara people that decide their own fate and no body else can tamper with it. It is the Tigrean people and only the Tigrean people that decide their own fate and no body else can tamper with it. This is true for all the rest of the peoples in the Ethiopia empire and beyond.

  15. Mr.who give you authority to negotiate.about Oromoo territory? Except Oromoo people nobody has authority to determine about oromoos. Don’t play gamble by Orommos blood. This not one person decision but it is the decision of all Oromoos.

    • who are you? you forget who you are,you are a complete peace of shit, you do not know anything but greedy and selfish thought of yours…you may dream Oromia but it becomes a nightmare always and you will live suffering from your mental illness. Ethiopia is being kept by God and we hear only your bull shit of course it is makes us irritated but this why we created for…we listen the devil but we passover temptation of person ride by devil like you…

      • Shut up. Ethiopia that Minilik formed has never been recorded in the bible. Do u think God is biased like you? Minilk Ethiopia was evil to most of the people including Amhara. Oromo were the most disadvantaged in that country. Can u imagine Somalia without government does better than Ethiopia? That will tell you the whole story.
        Getting back to the Kush that God promised, it is the whole Africa/black people, it is nothing to do with Coffee pot shape Ethiopia. If God is keeping that coffee pot Ethiopia how how can he cuts its head(Ertrea) with few rebels?
        God likes all African not only Minilk Ethiopia, just big ring to your ear

        • you see your answer, it looks like that you read a book but you did not or you just read what you wrote. So you say shut up to me but you already are a shut up guy since you persons like you do not have evidence but illusions…by the way it a big ring for you not for me bye Mr. nightmare…with no history and trying to destroy others history which you may even can not try Bye Mr Silly….

        • you already shut up!! you look like a reader though you are not, you have no history but destroy what others do…first read I am not saying read what you wrote and then be fair and then comment like human…do not be rude or something. I did not say God had not promised to kush or whatever…but you would not read in the bible such promise or prophesies for kush but you will read or may be read Ethiopia(as a country) in the bible more than 60 times…so it is not Minilik’s dream or others but it is the word of God so if you can change the word of God then try try…you will end in something you wont expect…

  16. This article is the view of G7, Birhanu anti Amara individual: at any rate, we trust the true Oromo of Ethiopia minus the harar and arsi oromos yet to be determined their citizenshiop since most of them are from Madagascar. The final solusion is : when we take arm and fight the tplf and its seroguates (those advocates ethninc politics the likes of G7 will disapear from the face of the earth. At last the Oromo as used to be will raise Ethiopia from the ash.

  17. Mulata thank you for the article, its open the way for dialogue.its very good idea to discuss on it.I appreciate. its also wise to know some comments written from woyane they dont want to hear the language of compromise specially from two tribes.because their existence depend on the disagreement of the two large ethnic groups they know when the two tribes agree the end of there era.

  18. English is spoken by many africans (not fluently), simply because most of africa was under colonialism for 50 to 100 years. They have no choice. they did not have their own local alphabet which they could use. so they adopted latin alphabet with the english language. the ge’ez alphabet is the only african alphabet and we should all be proud of it. Other countries are surprised to see the geez alphabet and appreciate its value and have a great respect for Ethiopia. it is only olf ‘elites’ who by choice have dissociated themselves from Ethiopia , who do not want to know anything that is Ethiopian.

  19. Dear Mulata, thanks for your great ideas and courage, please don’t be discouraged by the reactions of the extremists from both sides.It is important young intellects come to the fore and try to solve the problem, and civil dialogue is the way to go.I gather that fact your ideas are being attacked from both sides is a sign of your pragmatic thought process! yes we need to discuss and think about the solutions to the quagmire we are in, and bold ideas like yours will shade the light on the problems and in the end bring the win win solutions for
    our country, one thing is clear to me, We all are stuck to live together and it is better to find a civil way to handle our differences.We need to learn to talk to each other in a civil way and have a good will to listen to the other side’s concerns , insecurities and grievances .Thank you Mulata for the great job and please keep it up !! God bless

  20. The writer himself is an OLF- flag- wearing non-oromo who wishes to dismantle oromia which is earned with blood of its citizens. I do not think oromos want to negotiate on giving back what they have already earned.

  21. There are truly flickers of hope for the millions of Oromos who have been fighting against the Habesha domination one way or the other for over a century. One can argue about the end result, but there is no denial that the oromos will assume the leadership role in shaping the new Ethiopia or go their way, if the Abyssinians insist on their usual tactics. The younger geretion has now taken over the future of Oromia with clear mission.
    An old adage is pertinent to the current situation.
    “Oh, I am arm’d with more than complete steel, The justice of my quarrel”. APHRA BEHN, The Moor’s Revenge

  22. Venne
    Geez is a foreign as Latin to Oromo and also deep inside for Amhara/Tigre. Because it belong to South Yemen not black ethiopia.
    There is a lot to learn from “your empty pride”. Do you know how Egypt tricked your churches bible by including ‘Those on the upstream who touch/use Abay/Nile, will be cursed in the face of God”. Egypt a muslim country? This is how much the foreigners influenced you.

  23. M.Mulata
    Do you think hat 40 millions Oromo will accept quietlly the division or dismantle Oromia?Aubout Qubee and Oromia ther is no going back.

  24. Mulata it’s a good idea adn i really appreciate your concern for our country. By teh way as for the disentigration of oromia, the response given above are funny. It’s TPLF who created oromia. it’s in your mind not on the ground. there are millions of non-oromos in that region. how can you say it’s ormia. I will be happy if oromifa is the second national language b/c there are 11 national languages in SA, for example. But the issue of oromia needs to be debated. there has never been a country called oromia. people have been migrated from one place to the other. we don’t need to be stubborn. we need to accept facts and reality and that will sustain us.

  25. Koya,
    I hope you are not one of the woyanes, which I guess you really are. Any way what Mulata says is, we can not live in deadlock forever we got to do things differently and move on to stop wolves eating our diner while we are bickering over something which has no escape for any of us.
    As we have seen so far our people are highly welcoming any effort at unity it is only that our elites could not come up with ideas that unite us and that is what Mulata has come up with to suggest a starting point which is full of facts, and no fiction what so ever. See where Yassin Araffat left Palstine people by refusing to compromise when he was given a number of opportunities. See what happened to the Tamil people in shrilanka and their leaders as not long after they refused the autonomy offered to them by the help of Norugian gov’t which they refused and got destroyed before long leaving their people in total darkness, please lets open our eyes and try to see beyond the horizon.
    Lets not cry crocodile tears in the name of the people as we remain the same ones who unnecessarily prolong their suffering when we can just do simple thing and come together to do the right thing by marching foreword in unity.
    Compromise is the language of politics, give and take, and people need that, we have to get it and do the right thing before they leave us in the cold and move on with those who can make a difference. Please lets stop digging the hole that we have been put in by Woyanes, it is time to look and think out of the box for our own good as Gudata has all said it, we should rather say thank you to him for triggering such constructive debate.

  26. booontuu,
    do not show your ignorance in public. Geez has never been yemen alphabet. yemen uses arabic, for your information, and has been doing so for centuries. your propaganda is baseless and a lie. what you are good at is telling lie and repeating your lie hoping people will believe you.

  27. zizi, how about we deport u and declare independent. you better accept the reality. If you find any Oromo who want to live with you, he is lying to you. Especially if You are guraghe you better learn as I see you open you mouth by assuming the reation is aginst Tigre/Amhara. I have no issue with these people as we will know each other for long and as we are currently divided in to three, we will deal with eachother. You the Ethiopian Gypsies are making a lot of trouble with yourlow rated product and a noise. I told you stop your mouth

    • Hello Mr. what kind human are you? what are you? do you think by doing the same thing “which had been done 100 years ago to Oromos”, will solve any problem?. Undermining others would unsettle your self also…careful when you use words like “Gypsy” because you now nothing about their history…think like a man not like greedy Agases….

  28. I think I better lose Ethiopia than disintegrating Oromia. What did I benefited from Ethiopia by the way, as an Oromo person I was discriminated, my collegues jailed and all the evils happened. I think by changing the current federal system, any descioon will make a way to fight hard for independent Oromia by avoiding all the confusion between oromo who wanted union and separation. The choice is clear for any sane oromo. Do we need all the himulation and discrimination again? I think no way.

  29. dr
    did i hear you say ‘gypsy’? . how can any body reason with people like you, who has no respect for anybody. is this how you represent oromo. name calling and insulting people is the politics you promote, because you have nothing sensible to offer.

  30. 1. Impliment one person one vote rule.
    2. make referundum for national language and national flag. If need be every 10 or 25 years
    3. Promote all languages and cultures. on digital age it should not take much of a resource.
    4. Woreda (or kebele) should be the basis of local adminstration unit. Any thng above that hinders democratic rule. Large degree of authority on management of local resources should be with in the woreda. If there is a natinal interest involved it should be resolved with a clearly set rules and laws and involving the courts.
    5. Make discriminatio on any ground a crime.
    Any rule desighned to benefit one group or another will eventualy lead to a conflict. Create laws on how to resolve issues not on the issues them selves.

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